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But so is the ability to be flexible and consider non-traditional alternatives and perspectives.These complementary functions are what allow for critical thinking to be a practice encompassing imagination and intuition in cooperation with traditional modes of deductive inquiry.
In the ‘second wave’ of critical thinking, as defined by Kerry S. 1), many authors moved away from the logocentric mode of critical thinking that the ‘first wave’ privileged, especially in institutions of higher learning.
Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency.
C ritical thinking (CT) is increasingly being recognized as the cognitive engine driving the processes of knowledge development and professional judgment in a wide variety of professional practice fields.
In 1990 a consensus definition of CT, the results of a Delphi research project sponsored by the American Philosophical Association (APA), was published.He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale.Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Beyer (1995), critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge.Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities, concepts, and processes such as creativity, imagination, discovery, reflection, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity, ambiguity, and inconclusiveness.Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking."First wave" logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought.