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The reasons of the mixed results can be as follows.Research with appropriate analytical methodologies and measuring tools can significantly contribute to investigating work on TQM which analyzed reasons of the relationship between TQM practices and performance.
Section 2 also includes the proposed research model and the hypotheses related to the relationship between TQM practices and performance measures.
Section 3 explains the reasons and the barriers of TQM practices.
Previous studies have found that leadership improves operational performance [28–31], inventory management performance , employee performance [29, 31], innovation performance [30, 32], social responsibility and customer results , financial performance , and overall firm performance [35–37].
Effective knowledge management ensures that employees obtain timely reliable, consistent, accurate, and necessary data and information as they need to do their job effectively and efficiently in the firm.
We obtained 242 usable questionnaires, with a satisfactory response rate of 48.4 percent.
We conducted exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis.
Table 1 presents a summary of relationships between TQM practices and performance.
Although most of the results of the previous studies were positive, some of the results were negative or nonsignificant [2, 3].
Total quality management (TQM) is a firm-wide management philosophy of continuously improving the quality of the products/services/processes by focusing on the customers’ needs and expectations to enhance customer satisfaction and firm performance.
There are mixed results about the relationship between total quality management practices and performance [1–3].