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The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.
When writing a journal article, literature review, convention paper, or any other academic document, authors must include in-text citations whenever they refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.
In addition, every time a wok is cited within a paper (in APA, a parenthetical citation), a corresponding entry must be included in the reference list.
As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research.
When multiple authors have made equal contributions to the research, they often list their names alphabetically or in a randomly determined order.
Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.
Below the title are the authors’ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliation—the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research.The following guidelines and examples are taken from the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, 2nd printing, which details rules and application of APA style in research papers, including in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and references.For more information, consult the APA Style Manual website.Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles.Some use them regularly, while others never use them.According to Dickens (2014b), “these viral infections were precipitated by record levels of rainfall around the peninsula” (p. According to a study by Adams (as cited in Franklin, 2016), 25% of all US federal prisoners have been diagnosed with some form of social disorder.Adams (as cited in Franklin) contends that this statistic “reflects the de-humanizing conditions of most federal institutions” (p. Even when some central information is missing from a website (e.g., no author, date, or webpage title), you may still cite it as a source if you use the correct formatting.What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles?For articles that are being submitted for publication, the title page also includes an author note that lists the authors’ full institutional affiliations, any acknowledgments the authors wish to make to agencies that funded the research or to colleagues who commented on it, and contact information for the authors.For information on how to cite a website with missing information, visit the APA Style Blog post on Missing Pieces.For a more comprehensive explanation of social media citations guidelines, visit the APA Style Blog post on How to Cite Social Media in APA Style.