As of January 2018, only 88,112 private homes and 2,891 schools had been rebuilt.One reason for the slow progress in recovery is the high degree of political instability and fragmentation in Nepal.
Although Hindus constitute a majority of 81.3 percent of the population, there are deep caste divisions within the Hindu populace.
The marginalization and deprivation of lower castes, most notably the (“untouchables”) and other groups like Buddhists and Muslims (10 and 4 percent of the population, respectively), has been a source of conflict for decades.
Political instability – there have been nine different governments between 20 alone – and devastating earthquakes in 2015 have worsened social conditions in the country.
However, the government seeks to improve the education system with reforms, such as the extension of compulsory basic education to eight years of schooling.
In 2015, the country was struck by two consecutive earthquakes, one of them the strongest quake in more than 80 years.
This catastrophic event killed more than 8,600 people and destroyed or severely damaged large parts of the country’s infrastructure, including almost 500,000 houses and more than 9,300 schools.
While large-scale poverty remains a major problem, poverty rates are declining, as reflected by the fact that the country’s middle class grew from 7 percent in 1995 to 22 percent in 2011, per World Bank definitions.
International student mobility in Nepal is predominantly outbound.
Hundreds of thousands of families were displaced, and more than 700,000 people pushed into poverty as a result of the catastrophe.
The impact on the education system was disastrous, and recovery is progressing slowly.