As such, many authors proposed to use or adapt models of stress to better understand how stigma affects people.Based on this logic and drawing on the literature on stigmatization, discrimination and more generally on identity, the aim of the present article is to propose a revised model of stress and coping with stigmatization by focusing on its principal characteristic, its devaluing aspect for identity.” If the answer to this question is yes, then people categorize the situation as being a threat, a challenge or a loss.Tags: Gmat Essay Prep BooksDefine Thinking CriticallyNormal Research PaperAccounting And Finance Personal StatementOnline Grocery Business PlanBook Report Of Harry Potter And The Philosopher'S StoneParent Essay ChildParallel Thesis StatementsHomework Help Websites FreeThe Great Debaters Essay
While threat suggests potential danger to one’s well-being or self-esteem, challenge suggests that one focuses on the success, the social rewards and the personal growth that the situation could bring.
It is important to note however that threat and challenge appraisals are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
One of the most obvious and frequent consequence of stigmatization is the discrimination that often comes with it.
This can be blatant aggressions or more subtle mistreatment such as receiving a lower grade than deserve, being ignored by teachers and peers (Fisher et al., 2000).
All are stigmatizing “categories” that can be met in the school context.
The consequences of stigma are numerous, especially for the stigmatized.Coping refers to “cognitive and behavioral efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction” (Folkman, 1984, p. Given the diversity of responses to stress that exist, most authors tried to make significant and meaningful categorizations (e.g., active versus passive or avoidant coping, see Suls and Fletcher, 1985; Roth and Cohen, 1986). Dweck (New York, NY: Guilford Publications), 297–317. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) proposed that coping serves two major functions. The idea that people are active in responding to discrimination and stigmatization is not new.More than 50 years ago, Allport (1954) described how victims of discrimination used compensatory behaviors to cope with the discreditation of their identity.The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations.Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect.This appraisal goes through two cognitive mechanisms which are primary and secondary appraisals.Primary appraisal is an assessment of what is at stake: “Am I in trouble or being benefited, now or in the future, and in what ways?Today’s conceptualizations have changed quite a lot, going from a single external mark that told people to avoid a person, to, nowadays, the possession (or the belief of it) of “some attribute or characteristic that conveys a social identity that is devalued in a particular social context” (Crocker et al., 1998, p. Now, one can be stigmatized because he merely belongs to a group that is devalued in a given society.This can be because one is a woman, poor or from a poor family, homosexual, from another culture, member of a minority or simply because one does not look like everybody else (e.g., too big, too tall, too small).