Review Related Literature About Bullying

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Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behaviour in bullying situations.

Cyberbullying is an incipient phenomenon which occurs by means of digital devices, in virtual environments, which often overlaps with traditional bullying.

Hence, secondly, those involved in the bullying and those who witness it will likely be the same players, and their motives will be the same whether they are interacting online or offline.

Thirdly, the study of the factors prompting online bystanders to take action is a relatively young area of research, where, hitherto, study has focused on the same influence factors that are already known in relation to traditional bullying.

The study by EU Kids Online (2014) revealed that cyberbullying affects 12% of children between 11 and 16.

Cyberbullying, in the same way as traditional bullying, has been shown to have serious psychosocial consequences, causing misery, fear, isolation, depression, anxiety, stress or even attempted suicide (Hinduja & Patchin, 2013).According to Royen, Poels, Vandebosch, and Adam (2017) ‘cyber harassment’ can be understood as ‘rude, threatening or offensive content directed at others by friends or strangers and performed via electronic means’ (p. Meanwhile, bullying has been conceptualised as taking place among peers in a school context, and for this reason, only certain forms of ‘online harassment’ can be considered cyberbullying (Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2007).Although there are numerous forms of electronic aggression (Pyżalski, 2012), this paper is limited to cyberbullying (Slonje, Smith, & Frisén, 2013).Of particular influence seem to be the factors of friendship and social context, as well as empathy, moral disengagement and self-efficacy.To formulate practical recommendations to guide the development of educational programmes aimed at preventing cyberbullying using the bystander approach, further evidence is needed in relation to all factors, although certain general directions can be discerned even at this early stage.Review Because cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, there is some degree of variance in its definition. In its early inception, cyberbullying was thought to be limited to the internet. New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 246-258. Educators must understand the complex nature of this beast if it is to be addressed effectively. Furthermore, this review will look at the predictors of aggression in youth and how these factors can be addressed to combat bullying of any kind in the school setting.

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