The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility), driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate), driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment), crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior.
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This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile.
This last period is continuing, so it is a bit more difficult to be retrospective in grouping decades.
Therefore, Section 4 is divided by research topics, not by decades.
Other green vehicles, using alternative fuels like ethanol (flex fuel cars) and compressed natural gas (CNG), have gained a broader appeal with commercial and consumer automotive markets.
In 2009, China became the largest national automotive manufacturer by production volume with the highest market as well surpassing the United States; Japan is recognized as the thirdlargest.
Interestingly, the seatbelt had been introduced for steam-powered horseless carriages in the 1800s, but its purpose was to keep passengers on their seat, not to keep them safe in the event of a collision .
The steering mechanism in very early automobiles was a tiller, a lever arm that connected to the pivot point of the front wheels, a design derived from small boats.
Tillers were easy to use for very slow speeds and lightweight vehicles (such as those with three wheels).
However, steering a jolting tiller with sheer muscle power was difficult for heavy four-wheel vehicles moving at high speed.