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Unfortunately, the assumptions are rarely questioned, and these approaches might not work as well as we wish. "A Structural Analysis of School Violence and Disruption: Implications for Creating Safer Schools." Education and Treatment of Children, 22, August, 333-356. Each of these approaches is discussed in more detail below. "President to Trim Clinton's Community Policing Program; Law: Hiring Initiative Is Seen as a Key Force in Fighting Crime.
About 20-30 percent of American students (i.e., over 10 million) repeatedly either engage in or are the targets of bullying tactics  that contribute to the climate of fear.
 In fact, youth ages 8 to 15 rank bullying as more of a problem in their lives than discrimination, racism, or violence.
Whereas the chances of serious violence, such as shootings, are very low, violence continues to take place in schools.
The latest data available on criminal incidents (school year 1996-1997) reveal that about half of public middle and high schools reported at least one incident of physical attacks, fights (without a weapon), theft, larceny, or vandalism. "The Effect of Dropping Out of High School on Subsequent Criminal Behavior." Criminology, 23, 3-18.
Some are proactive in trying to prevent the development of violent behaviors, whereas others are reactive.
Certain programs focus on skill building, whereas others rely on the deterrent value of punishment. "Early Predictors of Violence." American Journal of Public Health, 90, 566-572. Some aim to boost physical safety by reducing extreme forms of violence, such as shootings. Others promote a psychologically safe school climate (i.e., one in which students and staff feel protected). Physical Surveillance Among the most common physical surveillance measures currently used in schools are weapons deterrence and the use of campus security and police officers. School Security Is at Top of Agenda." Los Angeles Times, A1. These strategies are aimed at preventing the most extreme forms of violence. Although bullying is far more prevalent than violence that involves weapons,  one primary goal of improved physical surveillance measures is to prevent youth from bringing weapons to school. "In the Classroom: Metal Detectors and a Search for Peace of Mind." Los Angeles Times, B2. These include the use of metal detectors, the presence of security guards on campus, rules and regulations regarding student conduct and dress, profiling of potentially violent students, anti-bullying instructional programs, and counseling and mediation. Which will reduce the incidence of violence in our schools and alleviate the fears of parents and children? How can school and district administrators choose among the myriad possibilities, and how can they know where to allocate precious resources? Some approaches involve the entire school and sometimes even parents or the community at large; others are designed for students identified as "at risk." Finally, certain approaches focus on resolving incidents rather than identifying problem students. Hence, school-based violence prevention efforts are based on drastically different sets of assumptions about what works. According to 2001 polls, more than 50 percent of parents with children in grades K-12 and 75 percent of secondary school students now think that a school shooting could occur in their community. Schools are taking a variety of measures to improve school safety.