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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of condition caused by infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV/AIDS has had a vast impact on the world, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination.
HIV is acute infection, which causes common symptoms like headache, fever, throat inflammation, large tender lymph nodes, sores of the mouth and genitals, diarrhoea, and rashes.
In the past decade, our thinking about HIV pathogenesis has significantly changed, and it is now believed that not the loss of CD4 T cells through HIV cytopathic infection, but the chronic inflammation that HIV induces, may eventually cause immune deficiency and non-AIDS diseases such as cardiovascular disease and inflammation induced artherosclerosis.
However, the virus-host interactions that differ pathologically from non-pathological HIV and SIV are still unknown.
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HIV-specific immunity does affect viral load and slows down disease progression, but eventually fails in almost all patients.
Better understanding the pathogenesis of HIV in the host and the dissemination of HIV in the population are both essential to effective control of the epidemic.
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