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“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.
Make sure that you only get articles and books in those areas, even if you come across fascinating books in other areas.
A literature review I am currently working on, for example, explores barriers to higher education for undocumented students.
Figure out a mini-conceptual schema based on that theme by grouping together those excerpts that say the same thing.
Use that mini-conceptual schema to write up your literature review based on the excerpts that you have in front of you.
the results obtained from studies using stories and word lists as stimuli can be generalised to forensic contexts.” …
“That is, the differences found between individuals and groups could simply be due to the participants giving their reports for a second time …” …“ on collaborative memory is that the memory of groups is compared with that of individuals. group performance should not be compared with individual performance but rather with ‘nominal groups’ comprised of pooled, non-redundant data from the same number of people tested individually.” 8. Most research involving the Experimentally Induced Information methodology seeks to identify the influence of misinformation presented by one witness to another, and therefore the assumption is made that discussion between witnesses is a detrimental process. “While the misinformation effect is a well-established phenomenon, ‘what remains in dispute is the nature of a satisfactory theoretical explanation’ (ref.). Therefore, in order to understand why memory conformity occurs, we must draw from both cognitive research on memory and social research on conformity.In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to (1) explain the occurrence of memory conformity and (2) describe factors that influence memory conformity.” 3.For each of the four explanations, followed typical structure of: (a) definition; (b) when might happen; (c) evidence supporting explanation; (d) limitations of this explanation as being “the whole story” (this is the “critical” part of a critical review). “Whilst normative social influence may explain the conformity that occurs in …, it is an unlikely explanation for memory conformity that may occur when people give individual statements following discussion in the absence of their co-witness. “The suggestion that memory conformity is a result of biased guessing is similar to the informational influence explanation because in both instances …However, the distinguishing feature between the two explanations is that …” …Identifies which explanations are likely to be valid in explaining the results of experiments conducted for this thesis. “Whist it has been shown that in some circumstances many people tend to conform to the opinions of others, we also know that some people are able to resist conforming in some situations. This section of the literature review examines factors influencing whether or not a person is likely to conform that are (1) in the situation, and (2) within the individual.” 8.Writing a literature review is often the most daunting part of writing an article, book, thesis, or dissertation. I have found it helpful to be as systematic as possible when completing this gargantuan task.You can begin anywhere, because you already know the order.Find the envelope with the excerpts in them and lay them on the table in front of you.Find books in the library that are relevant and check them out.Set a specific time frame for how long you will search.