For instance, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget’s developmental stages in a paper for an education class or give a source for your description of a commonly used method in a biology report—but you must be sure that this information is so widely known within that field that it will be shared by your readers. And in the case of both general and field-specific common knowledge, if you use the exact words of the reference source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source.
In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Also, it’s often conventional to quote more extensively from sources when you’re writing a humanities paper, and to summarize from sources when you’re writing in the social or natural sciences–but there are always exceptions.
Paraphrasing is often defined as putting a passage from an author into “your own words.” But what are your own words?
How different must your paraphrase be from the original?
When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented.
If you use an author’s specific word or words, you must place those words within quotation marks and you must credit the source.
Field-specific common knowledge is “common” only within a particular field or specialty.
It may include facts, theories, or methods that are familiar to readers within that discipline.
Notice too that the writer has modified Chase’s language and structure and has added material to fit the new context and purpose — to present the distinctive functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a number of phrases from the original passage appear in the legitimate paraphrase: critical care, staff nurses, nurse manager, clinical nurse specialist, nurse clinician, resource nurse.