While we're trying to help students improve a wide variety of abilities, we can develop teaching strategies that will be effective for students with different LEARNING STYLES.
For example, we can help students understand-and-use...
Other models for the problem solving process of science are more complex, so they can be more thorough — by including a wider range of factors that actually occur in real-life science, that influence the process of science when it's done by scientists who work as individuals and also as members of their research groups & larger communities — and thus more accurate.
For example, Understanding Science (developed at U. Berkeley - about) describes a broad range of science-influencers,* beyond the core of science: relating evidence and ideas.
An assumption that “model = rigidity” is a common criticism of all models-for-process, but because all models emphasize the flexibility of problem-solving process in real life, and (ideally) in the classroom.
If a “step by step” model (like PHEOC or its variations) is interpreted properly and is used wisely, the model can be reasonably accurate and educationally useful. A model that is even simpler — the 3-step POE (Predict, Observe, Learn) — has the essentials of scientific logic, and is useful for classroom instruction. In common language, a problem is an unpleasant situation, a difficulty.But in education the first definition in Webster's Dictionary — "a question raised for inquiry, consideration, or solution" — is a common meaning.Part of my Ph D work was developing this model of science, in a unifying synthesis of ideas from scholars in many fields, from scientists, philosophers, historians, sociologists, psychologists, educators, and myself.The model is described in two brief outlines ( (with links to the full text, plus a “world record” Table of Contents, references, a visual history of my diagrams for Science Process & Design Process, and using my integrative model for integrative analysis of instruction).Science Buddies has Steps of the Scientific Method with a flowchart showing options for flexibility of timing.They say, "Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process.Here are some models that can help students understand and do the process of science.We'll begin with simplicity, before moving on to models that are more complex so they can describe the process more completely-and-accurately.A simple model of science is PHEOC (Problem, Hypothesis, Experiment, Observe, Conclude).When PHEOC, or a similar model, is presented — or is misinterpreted — as a rigid sequence of fixed steps, this can lead to misunderstandings of science, because the real-world process of science is flexible.