In 1994, New York Times music columnist Alex Ross wrote in a light-hearted article, "researchers [Rauscher and Shaw] have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter", and presented this as the final piece of evidence that Mozart has dethroned Beethoven as "the world's greatest composer.
" A 1997 Boston Globe article mentioned some of the Rauscher and Shaw results.
The study makes no statement of an increase in IQ in general (because IQ was never measured). only showed an increase in "spatial intelligence", the results were popularly interpreted as an increase in general IQ.
This misconception, and the fact that the music used in the study was by Mozart, had an obvious appeal to those who valued this music; the Mozart effect was thus widely reported.
However, Rauscher’s results have faced much contradictory research.
Three studies conducted by other researchers in 1994, 1995, and 1997 attempted to replicate her findings using other spatial tests, but none showed significant score enhancement.Despite the popularity of the Mozart effect, experiments on the relationship between music and spatial reasoning have produced inconsistent results, and there has been no direct evidence for enhancement of overall intelligence.That is not to say, however, that all investigation of music and cognition should be dismissed.Jones state in their article “The Mozart Effect: Not Learning from History” that serious solutions have “nothing to do with Mozart or any other sort of magic inoculations,” advocating instead long-term programs that provide for impoverished families and develop children’s social skills.The Mozart effect myth may be an oversimplified attempt to solve the complex problems presented by child education.According to Andrew Kobets, MED ’11, “Studying this phenomenon and other effects of music on our neurobiology will certainly be continued in the future, but it is extremely difficult to do well-controlled studies.Progress will require controlling the musical experiences of several individuals over a period of time to demonstrate if cognitive changes can be maintained.” For this reason, while popular myth may have easily provoked a 5,000 stipend in 1998, today’s research finds money in much shorter supply.448 by Mozart, verbal relaxation instructions, and silence.They found a temporary enhancement of spatial-reasoning, as measured by spatial-reasoning sub tasks of the Stanford-Binet IQ test. show that the enhancing effect of the music condition is only temporary: no student had effects extending beyond the 15-minute period in which they were tested.Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw, and Catherine Ky (1993) investigated the effect of listening to music by Mozart on spatial reasoning, and the results were published in Nature.They gave research participants one of three standard tests of abstract spatial reasoning after they had experienced each of three listening conditions: the Sonata for Two Pianos in D major, K.