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Studies before Part D have found both effects, that is, total drug spending and adherence decrease for both discretionary and necessary drugs, while out-of-pocket expenditures increase (Tseng et al. How the Part D coverage gap affects drug spending and adherence depends in part on which and how many beneficiaries enter the gap, when during the year this occurs, and how beneficiaries respond. There also is uncertainty about how much of a drug use barrier Part D cost-sharing creates, with some suggesting eliminating the Part D coverage gap entirely or at least providing generic drug coverage during the standard gap period (H. The number of plans offering generic-only gap coverage has increased from 23 percent of MAPDs in 2006 to 34 percent in 2008, and from 13 percent of PDPs in 2006 to 29 percent in 2008 (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission 2006, 2008).
About 20 percent of Medicare beneficiaries are estimated to have diabetes (Sloan et al. In 2006, other MAPD beneficiaries with employer-supplemented insurance had no coverage gap and lower copayments than individual subscribers, that is, U. S.$10-75 brand copayments for up to a 100-day supply; their benefits were similar in 2005 as in 2006.
2008), and these beneficiaries may be at particularly high risk of reaching the coverage gap because they are often prescribed multiple, chronic medications to control their diabetes and prevent cardiovascular complications (Tjia and Schwartz 2006). The Integrated MAPD plans were available in California.
High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cereal consumption favorably alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers in middle-aged and older men [PDF file].
Retrieved from html Note: The issue number written in a parenthesis after the volume number should not be italicized.
This part will show you the guidelines, elements and examples for both in-text citation and reference list.
Title of the article or work“Lifestyle Disease and Mortality”*For works with short titles, write the full title in the in-text citation, whereas for long titles, include only the first few words enclosed in double quotation marks. Retrieved from or doi:0000000/000000000000 or Example American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6 Basic Format Author. Retrieved from or doi:0000000/000000000000 or Example Davy, B.
You will see what I mean when we discuss the APA PDF citation format in detail, but for now, here is a guide in listing the authors.
Last Name A & Last name BCarlson & Lee*Use ampersand (&) instead of “and.”Up to five names can be included, but in the subsequent in-text citation for works with more than two authors, write only the last name of the first author followed by et al.
A recent industry report estimated that 33 percent of MAPD and 43 percent of PDP beneficiaries with diabetes reached the gap in 2006 (Karaca et al. METHODS Setting The integrated, staff-model HMO offered a single MAPD plan for individual subscribers, with a coverage gap between U. The network-model HMO offered two MAPD plans in 2006: one with a coverage gap as described above, and one with generic-only coverage during the gap. S. for preferred brands, 50 percent coinsurance for nonpreferred brands, and 33 percent coinsurance for specialty drugs. Beneficiaries with the standard coverage gap in 2006 were most commonly enrolled in MA plans with no or limited (e.g., capped) brand-name drug coverage in 2005; the majority of beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage in 2006 had unrestricted generic and brand coverage in 2006.
Neither plan had a deductible and both had a four-tier copayment before the gap: U. During the gap, beneficiaries in the generic-only plan had U. During catastrophic coverage, beneficiaries in both plans paid the greater of 5 percent coinsurance or U. The gap plans were available in multiple states; the generic-only plan was only available in select counties within California, where beneficiaries had a choice of the two plans. "A Note on the Delta Method." American Statistician 46 (1): 27-9.