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Scoring better percentage in finals is difficult in ignou.Write it in your own handwriting taking xerox/ printout is not allowed7. Type of bit parity Successful transmission scenario A wants to transmit: 1001 A computes parity bit value: 1 0 0 1 (mod 2) = 0 A adds parity bit and sends: 10010 Even parity B receives: 10010 B computes parity: 1 0 0 1 0 (mod 2) = 0 B reports correct transmission after observing expected even result.
Consider the following example with a transmission error in the second bit using XOR: Type of bit parity error Failed transmission scenario A wants to transmit: 1001 A computes parity bit value: 1^0^0^1 = 0 A adds parity bit and sends: 10010 Even parity ... Error in the second bit B receives: 11010 B computes overall parity: 1^1^0^1^0 = 1 B reports incorrect transmission after observing unexpected odd result.
A wants to transmit: 1001 A computes even parity value: 1^0^0^1 = 0 A sends: 10010 Even parity ... Error in the parity bit B receives: 10011 B computes overall parity: 1^0^0^1^1 = 1 B reports incorrect transmission after observing unexpected odd result. A parity bit is only guaranteed to detect an odd number of bit errors.
In the case of a RAID 3 array of 12 drives, 11 drives participate in the XOR calculation shown above and yield a value that is then stored on the dedicated parity drive.
(e) Design a two bit down counter (a sequential circuit).
Should any of the three drives fail, the contents of the failed drive can be reconstructed on a replacement drive by subjecting the data from the remaining drives to the same XOR operation.
If Drive 2 were to fail, its data could be rebuilt using the XOR results of the contents of the two remaining drives, Drive 1 and Drive 3: Drive 1: 01101101 Drive 3: 10111001 as follows: 1011101101 _____________ 11010100 The result of that XOR calculation yields Drive 2's contents.
Parity bit checking is used occasionally for transmitting ASCII characters, which have 7 bits, leaving the 8th bit as a parity bit.
For example, the parity bit can be computed as follows, assuming we are sending simple 4-bit values 1001 .
The data must be discarded entirely, and re-transmitted from scratch.
On a noisy transmission medium, successful transmission can therefore take a long time, or even never occur.