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What happens is that the individual identifies with the lost person, so that repressed anger towards the lost person is directed inwards towards the self. Thus, the depressive phase occurs when the individual’s super-ego or conscience is dominant.
In order to avoid loss turning into depression, the individual needs to engage in a period of mourning work, during which s/he recalls memories of the lost one.
This allows the individual to separate him/herself from the lost person, and so reduce the inner-directed anger.
Depression is a mood disorder which prevents individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family.
Seligman (1973) referred to depression as the ‘common cold’ of psychiatry because of its frequency of diagnosis.
For example, classical conditioning proposes depression is learned through associating certain stimuli with negative emotional states.
Maladaptive Behaviour Essays Alexander Macdonald Essay
Social learning theory states behavior is learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement.
For example, Beck's (1983) model of depression was influenced by psychoanalytic ideas such as the loss of self-esteem (re: Beck's negative view of self), object loss (re: the importance of loss events), external narcissistic deprivation (re: hypersensitivity to loss of social resources) and oral personality (re: sociotropic personality).
However, although being highly influential, psychoanalytic theories are difficult to test scientifically.
Also if the person lacks social skills or has a very rigid personality structure they may find it difficult to make the adjustments needed to look for new and alternative sources of reinforcement (Lewinsohn, 1974).
So they get locked into a negative downward spiral.