Literature Review On Child Abuse

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As well, physically abused children showed less intimacy and more conflict and negative affect towards their close friends in comparison to the non-abused group (Kaplan ., 1999).

physically abused children also tend to be more shy and inhibited in interpersonal contacts than the non-abused group.

On the WISCR-R, physically abused children had a lower mean score than the mean of the non-abused group.

They also scored significantly lower on the Performance and Verbal Scales and the Verbal Language Development Scale, as well as showed deficits in mathematics and language tests, and in both receptive and expressive language (Augoustinos, 1987; Helm, Newport, Bonsall, Miller & Nemeroff, 2001; Kaplan ., 1999).

It has been shown that at least 30% of people who have been physically abused have lifetime disruptive disorder diagnosis, such as oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (Kaplan , 1999; Briere & Runtz, 1990).

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Research has also indicated that physically abused children tend to be less popular and liked and had fewer friendships.Too many people assume that these children grow up and just "get over" the abuse. Research has shown us that child maltreatment can be very psychologically damaging. In a number of studies, it has been shown that physical abuse has a damaging effect on children (Augoustinos, 1987; Briere & Runtz, 1988, 1990; Claussen & Crittenden, 1991; Kaplan, Pelcovitz & Labruna, 1999).A common problem found in children who have been physically abused is disruptive disorders.Sexually abused children have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders.This has been illustrated in several studies (Mc Leer, Dixon, Henry, Ruggiero, Escovitz, Niedda & Scholle, 1998; Zlotnick, Mattia & Zimmerman, 2001).These studies have indicated that sexually abused children are more likely to report symptoms of depression on various tests, such as the Children's Depression Inventory, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and the Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Mc Leer ., 2001).Another effect noted in victims of childhood sexual abuse is anxiety.This has been displayed in other studies as well (Mc Leer et al., 1998; Molnar, Berkman & Buka, 2001; Zlotnick ., 2001).Many children who are sexually abused display maladaptive sexual behaviours.Over a hundred thousand cases each year are reported to Child Welfare agencies in Canada.Child maltreatment affects children in a number of ways, such as higher rates of psychiatric and psychological disorders.

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