The element of task design depicts the horizontal axis of the triangulated model of Af L by setting out the assessment tasks which sequence and pace when learning is first ascertained and when it is subsequently assessed in order to determine if students’ learning had improved as planned.
The element of feedback depicts the incline or trajectory of the triangulated model of Af L.
What Ramaprasad’s  definition and Sadler’s  conditions for feedback have in common is the need for clear standards of learning to be articulated in order to identify a student’s gap in learning that feedback may address.
In common discourse, standards are whether a programme of study or examination results show a level of satisfaction/achievement.
Such a broad notion of formative assessment included diverse practices such as self-assessment, learning goals, and mastery learning.
This casts doubts on whether it is possible to precisely determine the specific “formative assessment practice” for which the gains in performance could have been attributed to.
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But there is considerably less attention (if any) on how these emphases should confluence each other.
Curriculum, Teaching and Learning Academic Group, National Institute of Education, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616Received 14 February 2013; Accepted 12 March 2013Academic Editors: B. Much has been written on how each of these is important in designing and using assessment for learning.
Three recurring emphases in the literature on formative assessment are (a) the importance of assessment design in prompting and sustaining students' learning, (b) giving students feedback that enables them to improve their work, and (c) clarity of standards to articulate the gap between past and desired performances.