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We can see that the term "one-tailed" refers to the tail of the distribution on the outcome variable. For instance, let's assume you are studying a new drug treatment for depression.The drug has gone through some initial animal trials, but has not yet been tested on humans.
You believe (based on theory and the previous research) that the drug will have an effect, but you are not confident enough to hypothesize a direction and say the drug will reduce depression (after all, you've seen more than enough promising drug treatments come along that eventually were shown to have severe side effects that actually worsened symptoms).
In this case, you might state the two hypotheses like this: The null hypothesis for this study is: The figure on the right illustrates this two-tailed prediction for this case.
When drafting the theoretical reasoning and rationale behind the novel hypothesis, avoid being fixated on collecting preliminary evidence that would automatically support it.
Instead, face alternative hypotheses in order to crystallize the potential ground-breaking nature of the scientific claim.
For example, our discussion about copying from winning proposals, the post reviewing the ERC grant, and the “ERC Lessons Learnt“.
Still, we highly advise researchers to seek assistance and consulting in order to solidify their hypothesis, and overall ERC grant application at large.
The null must account for the other two possible conditions: no difference, or an increase in absenteeism.
The figure shows a hypothetical distribution of absenteeism differences.
Unlike many features of ERC, hypothesis is expected by many reviewers in many disciplines, although you will not find the word ERC strives for frontier research that reflects a new ground breaking understanding of basic research.
By definition, research at and beyond the frontiers of understanding is an intrinsically risky venture, proposing to progress new and exciting research areas.