They were arrested, incarcerated and, while incarcerated, continue to recruit and build their gang.
In Texas, there were nine prison gangs with more that 50 members each, totaling 2,407.
Fong reported eight Texas gangs with 1,174 members.
Other correctional agencies, however, report their gang troubles started inside rather than outside prison walls.
Camp and Camp cite that of the 33 agencies surveyed, 26 reported street counterparts to prison gangs.
In other prisons, notably in California and Texas, gangs have formed which had no counterpart on the street. Examples of these gangs include the Mexican Mafia, Neta, Aryan Brotherhood, Black Guerrilla Family, La Nuestra Familia and the Texas Syndicate.
The nature of the prison gang problem was highlighted by Fleisher and Decker A persistently disruptive force in correctional facilities is prison gangs.Prison gangs disrupt correctional programming, threaten the safety of inmates and staff, and erode institutional quality of life.The authors review the history of, and correctional mechanisms to cope with prison gangs.A total of 277 correctional facilities in 45 different states participated in the 1991 survey.A total of 13,986 inmates answered questions in face-to-face interviews.Illinois reported that 34.3 percent of inmates belonged to a prison gang, which was then the highest percent of prison gang-affiliated inmates in the nation Lane reported that the Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC) estimated the inmate gang population to be nearly 90 percent of the entire population, attributing that number to the importation of gangs from Chicagos streets, which is supported by research.Reesshows that Chicago police estimated more than 19,000 gang members in that city and a high percent of IDOC inmates were arrested in Cook County.Although the numbers may now be completely out-of-date and inaccurate, the following results of the survey are instructive.Gangs, as defined in the survey, were groups of inmates which share 5 or 6 of the following characteristics in addition to committing criminal acts in the prison: The survey revealed that approximately 6% of inmates belonged to groups engaging in illegal activities which exhibited five or six characteristics of gangs (above).Knox and Tromanhauser suggest there are approximately 100,000 or more prison gang members across the nation.Subsequent to Camp and Camp the American Correctional Association found that prison gang membership doubled between 19 from 12,624 to 46,190, with relatively few gang members in minimum security units.