An example of a foreign or exogenous influence is bureaucracy exhibited in the government of the Philippines.
Based on studies, surveys, opinions, anecdotes, and other literatures made by experts and researchers in relation to Filipino social values or Filipino core values, along with the Filipino character or Filipino identity of a person or an individual known as the Filipino, the Filipino value system are found to possess inherent key elements.
The first is the exogenous model or the foreign model, while the second is the indigenous model or the traditional model.
The foreign model is described to be a "legal and formal" model.
This allows them think on their feet and be creative in facing whatever challenge or task they have even when it is already right in front of them.
The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christians (mostly Roman Catholics), 10 percent Muslim, and 5 percent 'other' religions, including the Taoist-Buddhist religious beliefs of Chinese and the 'indigenous' Anitism belief of peoples in upland areas that resisted 300 years of Spanish colonial rule.The values of Filipinos specifically upholds the following items: solidarity of the family unit, security of the Philippine economy, orientation to small-groups, personalism, the concepts of "loob" or "kalooban" (meaning "what’s inside the self", the "inner-self", or the "actual personal feelings of the self"), existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships, and the sensing of the feelings or needs of others (known as pakikiramdam).In a larger picture, these values are grouped into general clusters or "macroclusters": namely, the relationship cluster, the social cluster, the livelihood cluster, the inwardness cluster, and the optimism cluster.According to the anthropologist Leonardo Mercado, the Filipino worldview is basically 'nondualistic'.Based on his linguistic analyses of Filipino value terms like loob (Cebuano buot), he concludes that Filipinos desire harmony, not only in interpersonal relationships, but also with nature and religion, while still remaining nondichotomous.As with any society though, the values that an individual holds sacred can differ on the basis of religion, upbringing and other factors.As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity) and commercial relationships.Filipino values are, for the most part, centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group.The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.Family lunches with the whole clan with up to 50 people, extending until the line of second cousins, are not unusual.The Filipino puts a great emphasis on the value of family and being close to one's family members.