In Advaita Vedanta this is equated with the omnipresent and non-dual Brahman.In the dualistic Yoga school and Samkhya, the Self is called Purusha, a pure consciousness separate from matter.Nobody asked about the 'meaning' of the stick, nobody explained, and nobody ever complained about its use.
The Buddha and His Dhamma The Five Spiritual Faculties Purification of Mind Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha Dhamma and Non-duality Meditating on No-Self Fundamentals of Buddhism Letting Go Is Jhana Necessary?
The Abhidhamma in Practice Going for Refuge & Taking the Precepts The Noble Eightfold Path: The Way to the End of Suffering Taking Stock of Oneself Transcendental Dependent Arising Kalama Sutta The Buddha's Teachings in His Own Words The Practice of Giving The Practice of Loving-Kindness (Metta) The Three Basic Facts of Existence (Impermanence) The Buddha's Teaching of Selflessness The Buddha's Words on Kamma (Karma) Directing to Self-Penetration Looking Inward Reading the Mind Satipatthana Vipassana A Good Dose of Dhamma For Meditators When They Are Ill The Progress of Insight The Great Discourse on the Wheel of the Dhamma A Discourse on Malukyaputta Sutta A Discourse on Dependent Origination Kamma and Its Fruit The Elimination of Anger The Scale of Good Deeds Nothing Higher to Live For: A Buddhist View of Romantic Love The Sixteen Stages of Insight How Long is a Moment?
There remains no definition of necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one study recently noted a "persistent lack of consensus in the literature" and a "seeming intractability of defining meditation".
In 1971, Claudio Naranjo noted that "The word 'meditation' has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation is." to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state. (2009) identified criteria for defining a practice as meditation "for use in a comprehensive systematic review of the therapeutic use of meditation," using "a 5-round Delphi study with a panel of 7 experts in meditation research" who were also trained in diverse but empirically highly studied (Eastern-derived or clinical) forms of meditation and a self-induced state/mode.
One of the most influential texts of classical Hindu Yoga is Patañjali's Yoga sutras (c.
400 CE), a text associated with Yoga and Samkhya, which outlines eight limbs leading to kaivalya ("aloneness").It has three parts called the Ratnatraya "Three Jewels": right perception and faith, right knowledge and right conduct.It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be pure consciousness, beyond any attachment or aversion.The Roman Catholic rosary is a string of beads containing five sets with ten small beads.The Hindu japa mala has 108 beads (the figure 108 in itself having spiritual significance, as well as those used in Jainism and Buddhist prayer beads. The Buddhist literature has many stories of Enlightenment being attained through disciples being struck by their masters. Griffith Foulk professor of Religion at Sarah Lawrence College the encouragement stick was an integral part of the Zen practice: In the Rinzai monastery where I trained in the mid-1970s, according to an unspoken etiquette, monks who were sitting earnestly and well were shown respect by being hit vigorously and often; those known as laggards were ignored by the hall monitor or given little taps if they requested to be hit.Other criteria deemed important [but not essential] involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence.For instance, while monks meditate as part of their everyday lives, they also engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices.Dhamma Talk Transcriptions and Essaysby Bhikkhu Sopako Bodhi (Achan Sobin Namto) Wayfaring: A Manual For Insight Meditation The Four Foundations of Mindfulness Happiness is in the Middle The Four Noble Truths Sowing Mindfulness on Khandha Soil The Practice to Apprehend Reality Using Clear Comprehension Coping With Hindrances When Do You See?The Role of the Elements in Vipassana Meditation Beginning to See [PDF] The Lion's Roar: Two Discourses of the Buddha Self-transformation Practical Insight Meditation Practical Vipassana Meditation Exercises Fundamentals of Insight Meditation Disconnect the Dots [View as PDF] Real Buddhism?These are ethical discipline (yamas), rules (niyamas), physical postures (āsanas), breath control (prāṇāyama), withdrawal from the senses (pratyāhāra), one-pointedness of mind (dhāraṇā), meditation (dhyāna), and finally samādhi.Later developments in Hindu meditation include the compilation of Hatha Yoga (forceful yoga) compendiums like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the development of Bhakti yoga as a major form of meditation and Tantra.