In addition, assessment is often divided into summative and formative categories for the purpose of considering different objectives for assessment practices (Pollard et al., 2005; Arthur, et al., 2006; Butt, 2010).
In addition, assessment is often divided into summative and formative categories for the purpose of considering different objectives for assessment practices (Pollard et al., 2005; Arthur, et al., 2006; Butt, 2010).Yet, debate continues over whether and how summative and formative assessment should be distinguished (Threlfall, 2005; Wynne, 2005).Assessment has become a very important part of education process and it has advanced considerably over the past years (Johnston et al., 2009; Hall and Burk, 2004) and, as our education system becomes more curriculum focused, the emphasis moves increasingly to how teachers teach and how children are taught (Butt, 2010).
In the light of these, teachers can use the information of where students are having trouble and how they are progressing, to make necessary adjustments, such as re-teaching and trying alternative instructional approaches.
These activities can lead to improved pupils success. 2) formative assessment occupies a ‘curious and slightly paradoxical’ position within educational theory.
Although may be argued that formative assessment has always been a central part of educational practice it was only in the late 1960s and 1970s that the term was invented (Black and Wiliam, 2003).
Moreover, as a result of a growing international dissatisfaction with current forms of assessment, formative assessment was one of a number of ideas that attracted the attention of educational researchers (Bloom et al., 1971).
Since then a substantial number of studies, particularly in the UK, at all levels of education have attempted to align formative assessment with contemporary psychological theories of learning (Gipps et al.,1995; Boud 1995; Black et al., 2002; Hall and Burke 2003) and others have also taken account of sociological perspectives (Torrance and Pryor 1998; Filer and Pollard 2000; Ecclestone 2002).
In addition, in order to integrate formative assessment into classroom practice, a range of assessment strategies and techniques are currently in place aiming to improve pupils’ learning.
In this role, assessment is intimately linked with students’ learning processes, diagnosing students’ strengths and weaknesses, helping students to develop self-awareness; providing feedback on areas of learning requiring further work; helping to guide them in their studies and generally motivating them and promoting the desired learning outcome (Pollard et al., 2008; Alexander, 2010).
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT AND PUPILS’ LEARNING ‘Assessment for learning is any assessment for which the first priority in its design and practice is to serve the purpose of promoting pupils’ learning.
From reflecting in examples from theory and practice, it is possible to say that assessment in education involves making judgements about pupils’ attainments (Alexander, 2010; Preliminary Attachment, 2010).
In other words, it involves teachers deciding on how they will collect information, what information is relevant, how they will come to a judgement and then how to report and comment a judgment to those who want to know how pupils are achieving (Arthur et al., 2006; Aldgate et al., 2006; Hayes, 2006; Hughes, 2008).