The involvement of multiple individuals in different capacities naturally evokes the question of who should be credited and held accountable for the research published, especially since careers, ethics, and scientific integrity are at stake.
This article outlines the major concepts pertaining to authorship.
In the sciences, and in related fields like psychology, authors are generally listed in the order of the relative importance of their contributions, with the first author being the main author of the paper.
An exception is the last author, who is often the head of the department in which the research was carried out.
The need for definite guidelines on authorship is disparate across fields.
Dog Eats Homework - Byline Research Paper
In some branches of the humanities, single authors are still common, and authorship issues surface rarely.Unfortunately, there's no single answer to the Web bylines question. Reasons to remove bylines: Usually, a brief author biography is secondary content that should appear at the bottom of articles.However, if a credentialed or experienced author's credibility-boosting effect requires more info than just his or her name, you should add a one-line bio abstract at the top of the page to encourage users to read the article.Since there is no foolproof system for the ordering author names yet and journals do not normally arbitrate in such disputes, the onus is on authors to decide how best to resolve differences in opinion.The group of individuals who will be involved in the project must ideally agree upon these points, with the person-in-charge assuming a bigger responsibility in clarifying them to junior researchers.This can be a standard headshot or an action shot of the author doing something relevant to the article (such as sitting on a tractor, for a farmer writing about farming).Finally, the author bio page should include links to the author's other articles on the site, except in the case of weblogs or other sites that are essentially the work of a single author.Longer biographies should be relegated to secondary pages and linked from the author's name.But don't link the name to an email address, for two reasons: As my article on blog usability describes, author biographies should include a portrait photo, at least when you provide a separate bio page.To solve this conundrum, journals are gradually drifting from the authorship model to the contributorship model.Many journals now encourage or require authors to describe each person’s contribution to the study.