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Also, we present amodification to optimize the proposed MRAA protocol using the concept of load balancing.In networking, load balancing is a technique to distribute workload evenly across two or more computers, network links, or other resources; in order to get optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload.
In Section 4, we explain the new routing algorithm (MRAA) in detail.
In Section 5, we show some simulation results to show the ability of the ACO to improve routing performance.
In wired networks, routers can only leave or join the network by human intervention.
In an environment with mobile nodes moving constantly, the changing topology will not only cause continuous re-computation of routes but the overall convergence to stable routes may be infeasible due to the high-level of mobility and will also cause the network become congested by routing information packets .
In link-state routing , each router broadcasts to all routers in the network the status of each of its adjacent links, then routers of the network recompute the shortest distance to each node based upon the complete topology of the network.
The above two ways of how routes are found are clearly not efficient for the type of dynamic changes which may occur in an ad-hoc network.
So, there are numerous issues to consider when deploying MANETs.
The following are some of the main issues: unpredictable behavior, unreliable communication links, limited resources and changing topology .
It is therefore important to design algorithms that are adaptive, robust and self-healing.
Moreover, they should work in a localized way, due to the lack of central control or infrastructure in the network [5,7].