The new realities of racial tumult in the US and movements against racial injustice may have influenced the court’s ruling on Fisher, says the US News article.
A magazine article notes that Fisher didn’t have the qualifications to enter UT.
“Her grades weren’t that great,” and in the year she applied, admissions were even more competitive at UT than they were at Harvard.
The university told the court that if Fisher had received a point for race, she still wouldn’t have made it.
In the UK, there is no reservation; the government encourages underrepresented minorities to increase their participation. Kennedy, who coined the term, issued an executive order in 1961, prohibiting discrimination by government employers on the basis of race, creed, color, or national origin.
In the US, affirmative action was launched in the early 1960s, and initially covered racial discrimination at the workplace. The order also established the organization now known as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.Minorities and women were prohibited from applying to universities or for higher-level jobs in their own country.Discrimination was legal and masqueraded as state policy.The holistic admissions policy of Michigan University upheld in the Grutter case had similarities to UT’s policy.In each instance, under the holistic policy, admissions officials could take into account factors other than race, such as a candidate’s socioeconomic status and community service.Justice Powell, writing the principal opinion of the court in the Bakke case, appended a summary of features of the Harvard College program as a model for race-conscious admissions that did not use quotas.According to the appendix, Harvard College, besides, merit and other qualifications of an applicant, considered race among the different aspects of the background of the applicant.President Lyndon Johnson introduced “equal employment opportunity through a positive, continuing program.” In 1967, affirmative action, which was also inspired by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, was extended to protect women employees’ rights.In the first decade of the 21st century, the gap between whites and minorities enrolling for college decreased—from 70 percent of whites, 56 percent of African Americans, and 61 percent of Hispanics in 2007 to 69 percent of whites, 65 percent of African Americans, and 63 percent of Hispanics in 2011, according to data from the National Center of Education Statistics.In the first verdict, the court had overturned a lower court’s approval of UT’s race-sensitive admissions policy and called for race-neutral alternatives.In the 2016 verdict, the court found that race played only a modest role UT’s “holistic” affirmative action policy.