By creating a wormhole or apply- ing rushing attacks, the attackers can prevent good routes from being discovered, and increase their chance of being on discovered routes.
Hence, the traditional wired, wireless routing protocols are not suitable for MANET due to its unique dynamic ad hoc nature.
Due to the reason, the research community has developed and is busy developing protocols for routing in MANET to cope with the challenges of MANET.
The di®erence with PGP is that in their system, certi¯cates are stored and distributed by the users. have also discussed how to build security associations with the help of mobility in mobile ad hoc networks .
Since in ad hoc network nodes relies on each other to forward packets, routing has become one of the most active research topics during the last decade, and various routing protocols have been proposed, such as DSR [7, 8], AODV , OLSR , and TBRPF .
In this dissertation, we will not focus on speci¯c types of MAC layer attacks. have also studied the possible MAC layer sel¯sh and cheating behaviors in wireless CSMA/CA networks.
Instead, we will focus on some general attack models which have incorporated the e®ects of MAC misbehavior. To secure wireless ad hoc network, we can ¯rst try to prevent attackers from entering the networks.
Various schemes have been proposed to handle jamming attack in the literature.
One way to handle jamming attack is to design robust physical layer technologies, such as spread spectrum, which are resistant to RF jamming [7, 7, 77].
By using some spreading codes only known to the communicating peers, nodes have created a secret channel among them.
Recently, several new approaches have also been proposed to handle jamming attacks in a more e±cient way, such as those proposed in [0, 55, 8, 8, 8].